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Chapter 4 Sociology as a Process in the Formation of Personality


A. Socialization and Personality Formation

In people’s lives, the process of socialization or social learning is a lifelong process, starting from birth to death.

1. Understanding Socialization

Socialization is a learning process to interact in society in accordance with the role that is carried out. Usually, socialization is related to personality and culture. Humans are social creatures, almost all of their activities are carried out together with other humans.

2. Personality Formation

The process of human development, as a person with a personality or social being, is influenced by various factors. Among others:

  • Nature
  • Prenatal Environment
  • Individual Differences Or Individual Differences
  • Environment
  • Motivation

The five factors that form the basis of the human personality mentioned above through the process of action, reaction, and interaction affect the process of human socialization.

In the process of socialization, each individual gets supervision, restrictions, and obstacles from other humans. In addition, individuals also receive guidance, encouragement, stimulation, and motivation from other humans.

3. The stages of socialization and the function of socialization in the formation of roles and social status

The socialization process occurs through three stages as follows:

a. The first stage

In the first stage, children begin to learn to take on the role of the people around them.

b. The second stage

In the second level, the child knows the role he should play and knows the role that others should play.

c. Third phase

At the third level, the child is considered capable of taking on the roles played by others in the wider society.

The functions and objectives of socialization are:

  • Equipping a person with a set of values ​​and norms in order to have attitudes and behavior in accordance with the expectations of society.
  • Provide training for a person to have the various skills needed to interact and communicate with the environment.
  • Develop one’s ability to communicate with the environment.
  • Prevent someone from being able to control attitudes and behavior so that they do not deviate from social values ​​and norms. 

B. Types of Socialization Media and Their respective Roles

1. Types of Socialization Media and Their Role

The socialization process occurs in social institutions or groups in society. Among others:

  • Family
  • Playmates
  • School environment
  • Work environment
  • Mass Media, Print Media, and Communication Media

2. Methods Used to Influence Socialization

  • Method of reward and punishment
  • Sampling method

3. Social Learning Process

The social learning process is the ongoing individual activities in the social learning process to study various social roles. The so-called social role is the behavior expected of a person by the group, where the behavior is determined by the group or culture.

C. Culture and its Influence on Personality

Culture cannot be separated from individual personality through a long learning process. In the learning process called socialization, the individual’s personality must also have an influence on the development of the culture as a whole. Human ideas, behavior, or actions are organized, controlled, and stabilized by various value systems and norms in society.

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